Branches of Government
The Executive Branch of government is responsible for delivering programs and services to the population within the framework of laws, expenditures, and tax measures approved by Legislature. At the apex of the Executive Branch is the Executive Council (or Cabinet), composed of Ministers appointed from elected Members of the Legislative Assembly of the political party in power. Each Minister (or Member of the Executive Council) is responsible for one or more departments and agencies. Each department has a Deputy Minister. Ministers provide political and policy leadership, whereas Deputies provide policy advice and administrative leadership.
The Executive Branch directs and oversees day-to-day operations of government. In New Brunswick, the provincial government is composed of four parts: Government Departments and Agencies (Part I), the School System (Part II), the Hospital System (Part III), and Crown Corporations (Part IV).
The main functions of the Legislature are law-making, surveillance and representation.
Each of the 49 Members of the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick is individually elected to represent the voters in one constituency.
Members must fulfill many roles, including:
- they are law-makers;
- they hold the Executive Branch accountable by examining the actions of government; and
- they represent their constituents.
The Legislative Assembly is responsible for approving all provincial statutes, expenditures and taxation measures.
Within the Legislative Branch there are independent statutory officers who report directly to the Legislative Assembly for the manner in which they carry out their statutory duties. These officers include:
The Judicial Branch is composed of both federal and provincial courts.
Federal courts include the Supreme Court of Canada, the Federal Court of Canada (Trial Division and Appellate Division), and the Tax Court.
Provincial courts include the Court of Appeal of New Brunswick, the Court of King's Bench of New Brunswick (Trial Division and Family Division), the Court of Divorce, the Probate Court, the Small Claims Court, and the Provincial Court.
Justices of the Court of King's Bench and the Court of Appeal are appointed by the Governor General in Council. Salaries for federally-appointed judges are paid by the federal government.
With respect to the Provincial Court (also designated as the Youth Court under the Young Offenders Act and the Provincial Offences Procedure for Young Persons Act ), judges are appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. Adjudicators (senior lawyers) appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council preside over matters in the Small Claims Court.
The Province, by virtue of section 92(14) of the Constitution Act, is responsible for the constitution, maintenance and organization of provincial courts. All costs related to court operations (excluding the salaries and expenses related to federally-appointed judges) in the Province of New Brunswick are borne by the Province.